Wotton-under-Edge, England: Clarendon Press. Tackling wicked problems through the transdisciplinary imagination. Dealing with wicked problems in networks: Analyzing an environmental debate from a network perspective.
- How to Read the Akashic Records: Accessing the Archive of the Soul and Its Journey.
- Rhétorique (Classiques t. 4607) (French Edition).
Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory , 13, — Strategic spatial planning and regional governance in Europe. Journal of the American Planning Association , 69, — This directly relates to city-level governance and the opportunities that exist for metropolitan and city governments to address the urban nexus and to steer spatial development.
Urban governance tends to be seen as a mode of organizing policy around place-based intervention, which requires horizontal integration instead of functionally organized sectors and silos that prevail at higher levels of governance Stoker, Anderson, W.
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Furthermore, the recognition of various integrative skills and capacities of local government Richards, Richards, S. Spatial planning in particular, a policy field that is usually led by city governments Rode et al. Data section. Burdett , P. Rode , P. Vahidy Eds. Governing for sustainable urban development. The Allmendinger, P. Soft spaces, fuzzy boundaries, and metagovernance: The new spatial planning in the Thames Gateway.
Environment and Planning A , 41, — The coordination of local policies for urban development and public transportation in four Swiss cities. Journal of Urban Affairs , 28, — Governing cities on the move: Functional and management perspectives on transformations of European urban infrastructures. Farnham, England: Ashgate. Hence, a range of policy statements have highlighted the role of integration and cooperation across different departments, service providers, and different levels of government in helping to green the sector Department for the Environment, Transport and the Regions, Department for the Environment, Transport and the Regions.
Transport —The year plan.
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London, England: The Stationery Office. Implementing sustainable urban travel policies: Final report. Environmental Protection Agency, van Bueren, E. At the same time, integration has also been linked to discredited planning and policy practices. Towards a non-Euclidian mode of planning. Journal of the American Planning Association , 59, — He noted that, besides integrating the two traditional dimensions of the social and economic, integrating environmental sustainability and cultural identity as part of territorial policy agendas is hopelessly overambitious.
The importance of recognizing the limitations of coherent policymaking has been articulated in numerous publications over recent decades OECD, Head, B. Joined-up government: A survey. Political Studies Review , 1, 34 — These include lines of accountability that are less clear, difficulty in measuring effectiveness and impact, opportunity costs of management and staff time, and organizational and transitional costs of introducing cross-cutting approaches and structures.
Before moving to the empirical sections of this article, an introduction of key definitions and the framework of integration mechanisms this study utilized is presented. Stead and Geerlings Stead, D. Spatial planning and policy integration: Concepts, facilitators and inhibitors. In his book on integrating land use, transport and the environment, Westerman World Bank. Cities on the move Washington, DC: Author. Though these characterisations of policy integration make it entirely clear that it is policies themselves that are subject to integration, the actual use of the term in the context of urban planning and transport policies often expands beyond it.
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For a robust analysis, there are at least three important subcategories or forms of integration that need to be differentiated. The first form of integration is concerned with the integration of systems, which includes built form, infrastructure networks, and the larger sociospatial structures of cities. The second form of integration refers to the inclusion of additional policy targets that previously were either not considered or played only a marginal role in the decision-making process.
The third form of integration is governance integration, which refers to the joining-up of institutional arrangements that, in most cases, were subjected to a far-reaching division of labor. It is, as Lawrence and Lorsch Land Berlin. Bezirksverwaltungsgesetz [District Administration Act]. Berlin, Germany: Berlin State Government. It is the third form of integration related to the spatial governance of cities that this research focuses on. Strategic spatial planning and the longer range.
London, England: Stationery Office. Berlin, Germany: Springer.
Neither market nor hierarchy: Network forms of organisation. Research in Organizational Behavior , 12, — On transport integration: A contribution to better understanding. Futures , 32, — In this context, it needs to be stressed that the three related terms—coordination, cooperation, and integration—are often used interchangeably, though subtle differences have been identified with regard to their policy impact and the formally structured processes that they require. Collaborative planning: Shaping places in fragmented societies.
Organisation: Grundlagen moderner organisationsgestaltung; mit fallstudien. Berlin, Germany: Gabler. In public administration, vertical integration is usually required where different tiers of government overlap. A typical example is the coherence of urban policy at the city level with that at the national level impacting the city or the delivery of major infrastructure such as transport, energy, waste, and water projects Barker, Barker, K.
Barker review of land use planning: Final report, recommendations. An institutional model for land use and transport integration.
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- Lindenberger eigensinn v1 en 2015.
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Urban Policy and Research , 22, — In political science, discourses on integrated governance commonly identify three generic types of coordination devices: hierarchy, markets, and networks Thompson, Thornley, A. Urban policy integration in London: The impact of the elected mayor. Whitehead Eds.
Aldershot, England: Ashgate. Given the focus of this article on public administration rather than the private sector, it mainly considers hierarchies and networks. In such contexts, Scharpf Scharpf, F. Games real actors play: Actor-centered institutionalism in policy research.
Boulder, CO: Westview Press. For this study, four groups of integration mechanisms were identified and differentiated: first, those related to governance structures; second, those that focus primarily on processes of planning and policy making; third, a range of more specific integration instruments; and fourth, underlying enabling conditions. A more detailed description of each of these mechanisms follows.
In an ideal world, integrated governance is above all facilitated by creating structures of governments and governance , including strong legislative frameworks, which are conducive to more coherent planning and policy processes. The emergence and diffusion of institutional forms. Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics, , — Fragmentation and centralisation in the governance of London: Influencing the urban policy and planning agenda.
Urban Studies , 34, — Models of urban governance: The institutional dimension of urban politics. Urban Affairs Review , 34, — Understanding governance: Policy networks, governance, reflexivity, and accountability. London, England: Open University Press. A first-order and defining structural element of governance is administrative boundaries. Belaieff, Moy, and Rosebro Belaieff, A.