It is essential to stipulate in detail how one constructs such a historical database, but because of the focus of this article, we will refer only briefly to the most prevalent aspects. In our efforts to address the discontinuities among national curricula, syllabi and international bodies of scholarship, we collaborated closely with legitimate and authorised storage facilities, our research institution, information specialists and historical scholars to locate sources. We utilised particular search terminology, their synonyms, their historical labels and their South African and international descriptions in different combinations to locate a diverse database.
Because of the enormous timeframe from the genetic origin of the data — , the volume of documentation was vast, and it became of paramount importance to identify specific inclusion and exclusion criteria to select appropriate collections of sources, cultural tools and oral narratives that were typographically documented. The multifaceted typographical database generated provided a rich understanding of the historical nature of the international SSI knowledge and BK study area, which we can analyse culturally-historically, using a uniquely designed analytical framework that is compatible with our Hybrid CHAT theoretical framework.
Knowledge systems represent an activity system where individuals actively attempt to initiate meaning-making through interactions with others and the environment and to continuously modify and create activities that trigger transformations of artefacts, tools and thinking Yamagata-Lynch The aim is to develop an understanding of action against the background of an entire activity system.
Exploring the change and development of the activity systems over time and demonstrating sensitivity towards the historical context in which the activity system is located is important. Activity systems are open to influences that can ignite change, innovation and development.
A SEMIOTIC AND ANTHROPOLOGICAL APPROACH TO RESEARCH IN MATHEMATICS EDUCATION
The group deliberately and collectively changes the activity system and is open to new possibilities. Box 1 presents a summary of our analytical framework and how we have applied it to explore the knowledge system of BK over a vast period of time. The Hybrid CHAT theoretical framework enabled us to identify the three most significant contributors that, in our opinion, abetted in shaping SSI knowledge systems internationally and in the BK study area nationally. Because of the complex nature of activity systems, it cannot always be sufficiently explained, but requires one to explore it using multi-voicedness.
The multi-voicedness of each of the three activity systems enabled us to identify underlying criteria for each perpendicular system in order to conduct a vertical analysis within each of the six epochs see Box 1 and Figure 1. By utilising the appropriate perpendicular criteria, we could then compare the multiple historical perspectives held by both international and national bodies of scholarship about the development of SSI knowledge systems and the BK study area.
Much more than documents.
The vast volume of the typographical database was constructed for each of the three respective activity systems over six epochs. To analyse the educational activity system perpendicularly we drew on the knowledge systems that an educator should include when inculcating SSI in the early years Ball et al. Seven knowledge typologies were categorised as subject matter knowledge SMK and pedagogical content knowledge PCK , each with their underlying typologies Ball et al.
As for pedagogical content knowledge , the three knowledge typologies that are of importance are knowledge of curriculum KC , knowledge of content and students KCS and knowledge of content and teaching KCT Ball et al. For the societal activity system, we decided on scientific literacy as the major knowledge typology, with five underlying knowledge typologies De Boer ; Linder et al.
David Tall Research Papers
Scientific literacy can best account for societal requirements that contributed to the changes and progress in SSI knowledge systems through the years and according to which a teacher has a responsibility to cultivate learners for citizenship and 21st-century skills De Boer ; Linder et al. Scientific literacy draws on two visions, which feeds into cultivating a knowledge society KS. The three knowledge typologies associated with KS are language as codified knowledge, politics and economy as personal knowledge and, lastly, cultural tools as tooled knowledge.
Instilling Scientific Literacy in SSI education not only advances educational, social and cultural experience but also equips the young child with the knowledge, skills and values to participate in current and future cultural—societal events De Boer ; Linder et al. We incorporated in the technological activity system educational technology and technology pedagogical content knowledge TPACK as our knowledge typologies for an educator Koehler et al.
To implement educational technology in the early years requires a sound understanding of technology pedagogical content knowledge , together with knowledge of the 21st-century skills that the young child needs to acquire, in other words, knowledge of content , which includes concepts, skills and values; knowledge of pedagogy , which incorporates teaching-learning processes and practices; and knowledge of technology , which includes the classroom equipment, advanced tools and 21st-century skills akin to habits of mind Koehler et al.
Understanding the multi-voicedness of each activity system is imperative for a conceptual understanding; however, historicity is required for a contextual understanding. To explore the development of the SSI knowledge system and BK as a study area through its genetic origin we drew on the historicity principle. Looking at the rich historical account of national and international occurrences enabled us to inaugurate a timeline or epoch, consisting of six national educational periods Booyse et al.
The synthesised and synchronised time epochs see Table 1 and Figure 1 that we utilised in our historical research inquiry are as follows: 1 precolonial times: traditional education — ; 2 colonial times: Dutch colonisation and education — ; 3 industrial and progressive era: British rule and education — ; 4 Child Study Movement era: missionaries, Boer Republics, wars, the end of union and education — ; 5 post-World War era: National Party rule and apartheid education — ; and the accountability and electronic era: democratic education post— Seeing that activity systems do not function in isolation at a specific moment in time, it is also important to explore the interaction, tensions and contradictions that can occur when perpendicular systems are conglomerated.
As argued earlier, the fact that some curricula and syllabi, together with the body of scholarship, for decades postulated the assumption that the young child should only be educated to become literate on basic skills of reading, writing and arithmetic clearly conveys the possibility that knowledge systems can become stagnant and reluctant to advance. These conglomerated activity systems enabled us to develop an understanding about the activity that occurred among them and how this contributes to shaping or stagnating SSI knowledge systems across six epochs.
Change and expansion are inevitable as no activity system can remain stagnant incessantly; thus, investigating the possibilities for transformation is crucial. By applying the proposed theoretical and analytical frameworks, we could explore the constructed SSI knowledge system over an extended historical period to substantiate or detect connectedness or anomalies in the knowledge systems, internationally and nationally Du Preez Furthermore, we could ascertain whether the activity systems were open to transformation or, to the contrary, what was inhibiting the activity system from progressing Du Preez The possibility that expansive transformations in activity systems could lead to changes necessitates the identification of predominant trends from both the perpendicular vertical analysis and the conglomerated horizontal analysis Du Preez The 21st-century child will need to appreciate SSI to be able to conduct research, scrutinise information, demonstrate thoughtful reflection and understand the moral and ethical implications of his or her decisions within the world Asabere-Ameyaw et al.
Consequently, the ability to acquire and master such an SSI knowledge system can be a daunting task for the young child and more reason to infuse citizenship and scientific literacy in the early years under the guidance of mindful and knowledgeable educators Asabere-Ameyaw et al. Seeing that past knowledge systems influence the trajectory and progress of future knowledge systems, we can deduce that they are historically integrated and connected.
Determining whether the SSI knowledge system for the young child is attaining its purpose calls for a research inquiry that maps the historicity thereof to reconstitute traces left behind by past societies and replenish any silences that may exist. A study of this nature and magnitude requires a complex and well-conceptualised theoretical and analytical framework, together with a suitable research methodology.
The newly coined theoretical framework, Hybrid CHAT, together with its compatible analytical framework, enabled us to construct a rigorous, iterative non-linear typographical database that can commence in mapping the historicity of SSI knowledge systems and the BK study area for the young child in South Africa.
What sets this theoretical—analytical framework apart from other inquiries is its transformative, expansive and genetic nature. It is suggested that a communal aspiration be developed among scholars and curriculum developers to reconnect, transform and advance SSI education in the early years. This article is based on the PhD dissertation of H. The authors declare that they have no financial or personal relationships that may have inappropriately influenced them in writing this article. Abd-El-Khalick, F. Asabere-Ameyaw, A. Babbie, E. Ball, D.
What makes it special? Booyse, J. Bronfenbrenner, U. Bybee, R.
Dever, M. De Boer, G. Du Preez, H. Du Raan, A.
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