Merwin , who admired their work and was to remain a lifelong friend. Plath says that it was here that she learned "to be true to my own weirdnesses", but she remained anxious about writing confessionally, from deeply personal and private material. In February , Plath's second pregnancy ended in miscarriage; several of her poems, including "Parliament Hill Fields", address this event. Nicholas was born in January Hughes was immediately struck with the beautiful Assia, as she was with him. In July , Plath discovered Hughes had been having an affair with Assia Wevill and in September the couple separated.
Beginning in October , Plath experienced a great burst of creativity and wrote most of the poems on which her reputation now rests, writing at least 26 of the poems of her posthumous collection Ariel during the final months of her life.
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William Butler Yeats once lived in the house, which bears an English Heritage blue plaque for the Irish poet. Plath was pleased by this fact and considered it a good omen. The northern winter of — was one of the coldest in years; the pipes froze, the children—now two years old and nine months—were often sick, and the house had no telephone.
Her only novel, The Bell Jar , was published in January , under the pen name Victoria Lucas, and was met with critical indifference. Before her death, Plath tried several times to take her own life. She described the current depressive episode she was experiencing; it had been ongoing for six or seven months.
Horder prescribed her an anti-depressant, a monoamine oxidase inhibitor ,  a few days before her suicide. Knowing she was at risk alone with two young children, he says he visited her daily and made strenuous efforts to have her admitted to a hospital; when that failed, he arranged for a live-in nurse. Commentators have argued that because anti-depressants may take up to three weeks to take effect, her prescription from Horder would not have taken full effect.
The nurse was due to arrive at nine on the morning of February 11, , to help Plath with the care of her children. Upon arrival, she could not get into the flat but eventually gained access with the help of a workman, Charles Langridge. They found Plath dead of carbon monoxide poisoning with her head in the oven, having sealed the rooms between her and her sleeping children with tape, towels and cloths. Plath had placed her head in the oven, with the gas turned on. Some have suggested that Plath had not intended to kill herself.
That morning, she asked her downstairs neighbor, a Mr. Thomas, what time he would be leaving. She also left a note reading "Call Dr. Horder," including the doctor's phone number. Therefore, it is argued Plath turned on the gas at a time when Thomas would have been able to see the note. Goodchild, a police officer attached to the coroner's office.
He stated that "No one who saw the care with which the kitchen was prepared could have interpreted her action as anything but an irrational compulsion. What did I know about chronic clinical depression?
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She kind of needed someone to take care of her. And that was not something I could do. An inquiry on the day following Plath's death gave a ruling of suicide. Hughes was devastated; they had been separated for six months. In a letter to an old friend of Plath's from Smith College, he wrote, "That's the end of my life.
The rest is posthumous. The daughter of Plath and Hughes, Frieda Hughes , is a writer and artist. On March 16, , Nicholas Hughes , their son, hanged himself at his home in Fairbanks , Alaska, following a history of depression. Plath wrote poetry from the age of eight, her first poem appearing in the Boston Traveller. But, in sum, she was not successful in publishing prose.
At Smith she majored in English and won all the major prizes in writing and scholarship. Additionally, she won a summer editor position at the young women's magazine Mademoiselle ,  and, on her graduation in , she won the Glascock Prize for Two Lovers and a Beachcomber by the Real Sea. Later, she wrote for the university publication, Varsity.
Nights, I squat in the cornucopia Of your left ear, out of the wind, Counting the red stars and those of plum-color. The sun rises under the pillar of your tongue. My hours are married to shadow. No longer do I listen for the scrape of a keel On the blank stones of the landing.
Peter Dickinson at Punch called the collection "a real find" and "exhilarating to read", full of "clean, easy verse". The book went on to be published in America in to less-glowing reviews. Whilst her craft was generally praised, her writing was viewed as more derivative of other poets. Plath's semi-autobiographical novel, which her mother wished to block, was published in and in the US in I've tried to picture my world and the people in it as seen through the distorting lens of a bell jar".
While visiting Norton, Plath broke her leg skiing, an incident that was fictionalized in the novel. She strongly believed in their abilities to be writers and editors, while society forced them to fulfill secretarial roles. It was never published and the manuscript disappeared around Ferretter also claims that the rare books department at Smith College in Massachusetts has a secret copy of the work under seal. He presumes in his book that the draft may lie unfound in a university archive. It was Plath's publication of Ariel in that precipitated her rise to fame.
Robert Lowell 's poetry may have played a part in this shift as she cited Lowell's book Life Studies as a significant influence, in an interview just before her death. Plath's close friend Al Alvarez , who has written about her extensively, said of her later work: "Plath's case is complicated by the fact that, in her mature work, she deliberately used the details of her everyday life as raw material for her art. A casual visitor or unexpected telephone call, a cut, a bruise, a kitchen bowl, a candlestick—everything became usable, charged with meaning, transformed.
Her poems are full of references and images that seem impenetrable at this distance, but which could mostly be explained in footnotes by a scholar with full access to the details of her life. Plath's poem "Morning Song" from Ariel is regarded as one of the twentieth century's finest poems concerning an artist's freedom of expression. Plath's fellow confessional poet and friend Anne Sexton commented: "Sylvia and I would talk at length about our first suicide, in detail and in depth—between the free potato chips. Suicide is, after all, the opposite of the poem.
Sylvia and I often talked opposites. We talked death with burned-up intensity, both of us drawn to it like moths to an electric lightbulb, sucking on it. She told the story of her first suicide in sweet and loving detail, and her description in The Bell Jar is just that same story. In , the volumes Winter Trees and Crossing the Water were published in the UK, including nine previously unseen poems from the original manuscript of Ariel.
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Crossing the Water is full of perfectly realised works. Its most striking impression is of a front-rank artist in the process of discovering her true power. Such is Plath's control that the book possesses a singularity and certainty which should make it as celebrated as The Colossus or Ariel. The Collected Poems , published in , edited and introduced by Ted Hughes, contained poetry written from until her death. Plath was posthumously awarded the Pulitzer Prize for poetry. The poem, composed during Plath's early years at Smith College, is published in the online journal Blackbird.
Plath's letters were published in , edited and selected by her mother Aurelia Plath. The collection, Letters Home: Correspondence — , came out partly in response to the strong public reaction to the publication of The Bell Jar in America.
Her adult diaries, starting from her first year at Smith College in , were first published in as The Journals of Sylvia Plath, edited by Frances McCullough, with Ted Hughes as consulting editor. In , when Smith College acquired Plath's remaining journals, Hughes sealed two of them until February 11, , the 50th anniversary of Plath's death.
During the last years of his life, Hughes began working on a fuller publication of Plath's journals. In , shortly before his death, he unsealed the two journals, and passed the project onto his children by Plath, Frieda and Nicholas, who passed it on to Karen V.
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More than half of the new volume contained newly released material;  the American author Joyce Carol Oates hailed the publication as a "genuine literary event". Hughes faced criticism for his role in handling the journals: he claims to have destroyed Plath's last journal, which contained entries from the winter of up to her death. In the foreword of the version, he writes, "I destroyed [the last of her journals] because I did not want her children to have to read it in those days I regarded forgetfulness as an essential part of survival.